Tag Archives: amplifiers

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.


Few things in engineering are straightforward. In fact, more often than not, how you do something is more important than what you do.

Take, for example, the task of audio PC board layout.

Back in the day—and that day goes back 40-something years—there were no such things as computers available for PC board layout tasks. At least not for mere mortals. Instead, rolls of sticky black tape and sheets of stick-um donut pads of all sizes were the norm. Armed with a razor blade as my only tool, I would spend days hunched over a light table rolling out circuit traces terminating in those through-hole pads.

The goal, of course, was to make a master from which circuit boards would eventually be mass-produced and used in the building of PS Audio amplifiers and preamplifiers. That was what we did back then. (unlike today, where all this is done on a computer in what looks somewhat like a build-it-yourself video game where pads and traces can be moved around at the click of a mouse)

The problem with hand placing parts the “old way” was twofold: getting everything to fit onto a predefined PC board size and routing all the traces without running into each other and shorting out. I spent countless hours/days ripping up my work and starting over until I devised a new methodology.

That new methodology involved a sheet of styrofoam and a box of all the parts I would need. Onto the styrofoam, I would insert the parts and move them around like chess pieces until the jigsaw puzzle of one hundred or so parts all fit in neat and orderly rows. Once placed, I could draw the major power supply routes and signal connections with a pen to make sure it all worked.

What I was doing never varied much, but how I did it mattered greatly.

From that point on, the quality and beauty of PS Audio boards to a major leap forward thanks to methodology.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

This pretty much isnt applicable for Audiophiles, as I’ve only ever used preamps with at least two sets of outputs and subwoofers with their own amplifiers, but for those with AVR’s, applicable.

Double duty

For those that have receivers or integrateds with dedicated RCA subwoofer outputs, this post may have some interest.

For the most part, a dedicated subwoofer output on a receiver or integrated exists because of old-school habits. Long ago, at the beginning of the subwoofer era, there were no built-in crossovers. Subs came in two flavors: an unpowered or powered woofer in a box. If the first the user had to supply a power amplifier and if the latter, a crossover to remove the high frequencies from the receiver.

Over time, subwoofer manufacturers moved away from these crude versions to more sophisticated ones with built-in crossovers and amps making unnecessary the dedicated subwoofer outputs.

The problem with this feature overlap between receivers and subwoofers is the confusion it causes.

Without prior knowledge, what user wouldn’t use the dedicated subwoofer output to feed their sub?

The issue, of course, is having two crossovers: one in the receiver and the second in the subwoofer. Double-duty crossovers make for a less-than-desirable outcome.

If you do have a dedicated subwoofer output check with your instruction manual to see if you can disable it or instead, use a Y-connector on the receiver’s main RCA outputs.

Of course, if your subwoofer allows, the best connection possible is from the amplifier’s speaker outputs.

It’s all in the connection.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl

Very good analogy from Paul

Distortion vs. spice

When we add to an avocado a pinch of salt, a sprinkle of paprika, and a spot of lemon, we’re distorting it. It is no longer that pure, green, fresh-cut perfection.

But it tastes better.

I wonder if the same applies to our stereos. We’re all so ingrained with the notion that distortion is an ugly word. That doing anything outside the realm of purity is a sin.

And yet we are alright with manipulating the frequency response curves of loudspeakers as long as it falls within the accepted parameters of the practical.

There are no perfect amplifiers or speakers. None are truly pure.

I see no harm in adding a bit of spice here and there if it makes it sound better.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

Decisions, decisions, decisions

Weeding through this morning avalanche of spam I see on offer an oil contract opportunity that is labeled as a legit and genuine business deal, a once in a lifetime chance to join something called Silver Singles, a foldable laptop stand that will forever fix my posture, and a new knife plier which will (thankfully) eliminate my need for all those messy tools.

Though somewhat disappointed no one wants to put money in my bank account or sell me a sure-fire organic cure for CoViD, I suppose I’ll have to wait for the next big opportunity to come my way.

I am always impressed by the decision making process. Or perhaps better stated, I am always impressed when someone actually makes a decision.

The process can be everything from fun to agonizing.

This morning I was making my way through the warehouse and stopped at a mountain of outgoing boxes, each with a different address label. Among the many boxes I spotted: BHK amplifiers, PST transports, Strata Integrated amplifier, P15 Power Plants, vacuum tube replacements. In the corner near the roll up door were several hundred envelopes of Octave releases on their way to music lovers around the world.

Each and every box and package was the end result of a decision that could have taken weeks, months, or years to make.

Or perhaps at the snap of a finger.

Sometimes I have to take a step back and simply marvel at it all.

Decisions can be tough but once made we tend to relax and get ready for that special moment when it comes to fruition.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

Fri, Nov 12 at 5:04 AM
Maximizing one’s assets
Separate loudspeaker drivers like separate electronics maximize the attributes of each: amplifiers focus on amplifying, sources are specific to their task.

And so it is with speakers too. No woofer can reproduce that which a proper tweeter can. Take for example the planar tweeter in the upcoming FR30 loudspeaker. Its moving diaphragm has lower mass than the air it is driving. Try that using a heavy-high mass subwoofer. Or the opposite. The thin planar driver is no match for the long-throw woofers used to pump long wavelengths of bass frequencies into the room.

In my opinion, there’s simply no substitute for separates whether in the multiple drivers that make up a loudspeaker or the multiple boxes that together produce music that brings us pleasure.

If high-performance and precision are the desired outcome, then it makes perfect sense to maximize one’s assets.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

Parallel vs. series

There is a fundamental difference between projects worked in parallel or in series yet both have their merits.

In the former, multiple tasks and projects are tackled at the same time while with the latter, every step follows the next.

Each of us operates at different levels with respect to how we handle projects. Some are most comfortable focusing all their efforts on a series project: dig in, push everything else aside, focus on seeing every step in the process completed to fruition. Others work effectively on multiple tasks and projects by commutating in small spurts their time and energies into many projects. Still others operate in a combo between both series and parallel.

Neither method is better or worse than the other. It’s up to each individual to figure out the most efficient path for their particular skills.

Take PS Audio as an example. At any one time, we have multiple projects being worked upon: loudspeakers, streamers, amplifiers, DACs, recording studio, Octave music, etc. Yet, within each of these parallel endeavors, we find a dedicated group of engineers working tirelessly in series: the beauty of having a team.

Me? If I don’t have ten projects percolating in my head I am bored. My greatest joy is commutating between projects and diving into each with all the zeal and passion I possess until exhausted, then moving on to the next and repeating.

What’s glorious about our differences is recognizing within each of us what works and doesn’t.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.


We’re all familiar with the terms amplifiers and valves. We use electronic valves like vacuum tubes and transistors to amplify audio signals. Yet, even writing those words makes me a bit nervous because I can see how they might be misunderstood.

When we talk of amplifying the input signal it sounds like we are taking a small signal and somehow boosting it. Maybe a good analogy can be found in an airport and its moving sidewalk. You’re walking along at your pace and then step onto the moving conveyor belt, boosting your speed. That’s amplifying your walking.

That’s not what’s happening in an amplifier.

In fact, the input signal never reaches the output. It does its work and then is discarded, never to be seen or heard again.

We don’t amplify the input signal in the same way a moving sidewalk amplifies our forward motion. Instead, the input signal turns a virtual valve up or down to release more or less voltage and current from the power supply. What gets passed on to our loudspeakers and headphones is not the input signal, but voltage and current straight from the power supply.

It’s more than semantics.

Our input signals are but instigators.

Once they do their work they are gone forever.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.


One of the most important secret weapons available to the high-performance stereo equipment designer is the Field Effect Transistor, better known as the FET.

Originally envisioned by Austrian physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925 and then again by Oskar Heil in 1934—yes THAT Oscar Heil, the inventor of what is still to this day one of the best tweeters ever made, the Heil Air Motion Transformer—it was little more than a pipe dream because they couldn’t get it to work. It wouldn’t be until another decade later when, in the course of trying to understand their failure to build a working FET, Bell Lab’s scientists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley would instead build a point-contact transistor in 1947, followed by the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) in 1948. It would take another decade of work to produce the first practical FETs, and another decade after that to enter the general marketplace.

The fundamental difference between a BJT and a FET is that BJTs are at their inputs excited into operation by current while FETs rely upon voltage. This fundamental difference—current vs. voltage—is what has such a profound effect on sound quality differences between the two structures. A FET is more closely related to another voltage amplifying device, the vacuum tube.

So it should be no surprise to find that FETs sound remarkably closer to vacuum tubes than do BJTs.

Great food, like great power amplifiers, depend on the quality and nature of their ingredients.

Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

Power calculations

One of the most common questions I cannot answer is about matching power amps to Power Plants. It seems such an obvious question and you’d think the answer would be straight forward. But, you’d be incorrect.

The problem with matching power amps to Power Plants happens because we don’t have the complete story. What we’re missing are the speakers and your listening habits. An M1200 monoblock pair is capable of delivering massive amounts of power to speakers, yet in many cases, the pair can be powered with the smallest of our Power Plants, the P3. It all depends on what the amplifiers are being asked to do.

The easiest way to visualize what’s happening is to view the power amp/speaker as a pair. A power-hungry speaker will demand the same amount of wattage from any amp regardless of that amplifier’s rating. And conversely, even power-hungry speakers take less when not being played loudly.

I don’t mean to make this difficult. I bring this up merely to point out that what we might view as a straight forward calculation is, in fact, a bit more involved. If you’re confused, it’s always worth a call to us.

Here’s an easy rule of thumb you can use. If your power amplifier is a standard bias class AB or class D amplifier, and your speaker’s sensitivity hovers close to the 90dB/Watt/meter, then, on average, you’re likely not pushing much more than 100 watts even on peaks. Thus, any of our Power Plants would work just fine for you.

Just remember, amps and speakers should be thought of as pairs.


Asheville, Walnut Cove, Biltmore Forrest and Western North Carolina’s Audio and Home Theater specialists present Cane Creek AV and Paul McGowan – PS Audio, Intl.

With my Daedalus Ulysses loudspeakers that weigh around 120 lbs with their custom bases and tube amplifiers that weigh 100 lbs each, and racks full of heavy stuff, I’m not moving anything. However, unplugging audio cables and cleaning contacts might be worthwhile. Otherwise, an exercise like this sure isn’t for me.

However, if you feel the need, this certainly won’t hurt, except the disconnecting from the wall part, and here’s Pauls recommendations.

Spring has sprung

Terri and I make a point of walking three times per day: morning, noon, and evening. We traipse around our neighborhood or, if the weekend and the sun’s being cooperative, on the few trails we can access. Fellow walkers are increasingly respectful of keeping their distance as are we. And, we wave and smile at each passerby, thanking them for their courtesy. We may have to keep our physical distance, but we’re determined not to get divorced from connecting as people.

A smile can be powerful medicine.

While outside it’s hard to miss that spring weather is encouraging a hint of green and budding trees.

Spring also means it’s time to roll up your sleeves and get to rearranging and rejuvenating your stereo system.

A major teardown and rebuild of the system is cathartic—tension relieving—because when you’re in the thick of it the rest of the world isn’t pressing in on you.

Here are the steps I recommend:

  • Shut the entire system down by powering off all equipment from the mains.
  • Remove all interconnects and power cables, stacking them neatly away from the main system.
  • Use a piece of tape to mark exactly where your speakers are on the floor.
  • Pull all equipment off the shelves, rack, stands, etc.
  • Grab a bottle of Windex glass cleaner and go to town. Get down not just on the rack or shelves, but then clean every inch of the equipment itself. If you have tube gear pull out the tubes, make sure the insides of the gear is clean, and reinsert them. (When’s the last time you replaced those tubes?)
  • Reassess the symmetry of your setup. Using a tape measure, get the rack and stands straight and orderly. Recheck the speaker placement.
  • Grab the vacuum cleaner and with its hose detached from the head, get every corner and crevice of the room cleaned, then mow down the balance.
  • Carefully reassemble your system ensuring symmetrical placement of each piece of kit (for me, at least, ensuring symmetry helps imaging – probably because I can relax more).
  • If you’re into DeoxITKontak, or other potions to improve connectivity, go to town. Me, I stay away from them figuring the in and out disconnect and connect are enough.
  • Turn back on everything and play a setup recording to make sure you have left and right channels correct and then the proper phase between channels.

Finally, turn the light on low, play your favorite tracks of music, and enjoy a renewed connection with what brings you pleasure.

Your HiFi system.